Drilling is the use of mechanical equipment to drill holes in the formation. According to the rock breaking method and the type of drilling tool, it can be divided into drilling technology and rotary drilling technology. In geological exploration and geological engineering, drilling equipment facilitates underground drilling. For small diameter and deep cylindrical holes, this is called drilling. Design different drilling straightness and drilling depth according to drilling application. For example, drilling for oil, natural gas and groundwater has larger diameters. Usually used for geophysical logging to obtain cores and other small holes.
The main functions of drilling are:
1. Obtain underground physical data, and obtain cores, cuttings, oil, water, natural gas, etc. from the bottom of the well.
2. As a geophysical logging channel, to obtain data about various geophysical fields of the rock formation, such as underground military firepower testing.
3. As an artificial channel, observe the minerals, hydrology and geological structure in the stratum.
4. Comprehensive application, comprehensive exploration and acquisition, and utilization of underground resources.
According to the purpose of classification, drilling is generally divided into geological exploration drilling, geological exploration drilling, water well, engineering geological drilling, geothermal drilling, oil drilling, etc.
Drilling, also known as percussion drills, usually uses a wire rope to send the drill bit to the bottom of the hole. The power-driven beam mechanism makes the beam move up and down, and drives the wire rope and the drill bit to collide up and down, thereby breaking the rock. The drilling equipment is simple, low cost, and does not pollute the oil layer, but the drilling speed is slow, the efficiency is low, and the drilling is shallow, which cannot meet the requirements of complex formations and deep wells, and is gradually replaced by rotary drilling. Rotary drills are used to break rocks by cutting or grinding that occurs when the drill bit is rotated. It is currently the most common drilling technology. It has Beaton's fast drilling speed and is easy to handle complex situations such as collapse and blowout.
According to different power transmission methods, rotary drills can be divided into two types: rural rotary drills and underground power drills.
Rotary drill is an equipment turntable on a drilling platform. There is a square hole in the center of the turntable. The drill rod at the upper end of the drill rod passes through the square hole, and the drill rod is connected with the drill bit. When the rotary table is driven by power, the drill string and the drill bit rotate together and break. Rock, dig holes. This technique has obvious disadvantages. The drill rod and the drill bit rotate together. The deeper the drill, the more drill rods used. The greater the weight of the turntable, the greater the wear and energy consumption of the drill rod. Will gradually increase until the power machine is overloaded.
Underground electric drills are beneficial to underground electric drills, which drive the drill bit to break the rock. When the drill bit is drilled, the drill rod does not rotate, which reduces the wear of the drill rod, prolongs the service life of the drill rod, reduces the energy consumption, and is suitable for deep drilling. drilling. However, the technology is also relatively complicated. According to the function, drilling equipment is divided into rotating system, lifting system, mud circulation system, etc. The equipment manufacturing and application technology are relatively difficult and not suitable for small drilling companies.